Танковый фронт

4-я бронетанковая дивизия

4th Armored Division

I. Командный состав дивизии
II. Формирование и организация

Прозвище дивизии (Nickname): иногда назвалась “Breakthrough” (Прорыв).

4-я бронетанковая дивизия была сформирована 15 апреля 1941 г. в Пин-Кэмпе, шт. Нью-Йорк (Pine Camp, New York). 2 октября 1942 г. передислоцирована в Cp Forrest Tenn, где в составе 1-го корпуса принимала участие в маневрах в Теннесси.

17 ноября 1942 г. передислоцирована в Cp Young Calif, в Пустынный Учебный Центр (Desert Training Center), где приняла участие в Маневрах в Калифорнии.

13 июня 1943 г. передислоцирована в Cp Bowie Tex. 20 денкабря 1943 г. передислоцирована в Cp Myles Standish Mass. 29 декабря 1943 г. дивизия отплыла из Бостонского порта в Европу. 11 января 1944 г. прибыла в Англию.

13 июля 1944 г. дивизия высаживается во Франции. 9 февраля 1945 г. дивизия достигла Люксембурга, а 9 марта 1945 г. - Германии. 1 мая 1946 г. в Германии переформирована в 1-ю полицейскую бригаду (1st Constabulary Brigade).


The 4th Armored Division was activated during World War II on 15 April 1941 with 3,800 men (10,000 by end of May 1941) from various other units, at Pine Camp (Camp Drum, 1951; Fort Drum, 1974), New York under Henry W. Baird. The division was organized as a full Armored Division in May and June 1942 under the command of Major General John Shirley Wood. It left Pine Camp for Camp Forrest for the Tennessee maneuvers in the Cumberland Mountains held in September and October. In Mid-November, it was transferred to the Desert Training Center (DTC) in the California-Arizona maneuver area and was the first Armored Division to occupy Camp Ibis near Needles, California in the Mojave Desert, which was close to the Arizona and Nevada borders. On 3 June, the 4th AD arrived at Camp Bowie, Texas, an armored training center located at the southern end of the Piute Valley, for more maneuvers until 11–18 July when it departed for Camp Myles Standish in Massachusetts for winter training. On 29 December, the 4th AD departed Boston to conduct training in England in preparation for the invasion of Normandy.

After training in England from January to July 1944, the 4th Armored Division landed at Utah Beach, on 11 July, over a month after the initial Normandy landings, and first entered combat on 17 July; on 28 July, battle action as part of the VIII Corps exploitation force for Operation Cobra, the 4th AD secured the Coutances area. The 4th AD then swung south to take Nantes, cutting off the Brittany Peninsula, 12 August 1944. Turning east, it drove swiftly across France north of the Loire, smashed across the Moselle 11–13 September, flanked Nancy and captured Lunéville, 16 September. The 4th AD fought several German panzergrenadier brigades in the Lorraine area including the SS Panzergrenadier Brigade 49 and SS Panzergrenadier Brigade 51 at this time, defeating a larger German force through superior tactics and training.

After maintaining a defensive line, Chambrey to Xanrey to Hénaménil, from 27 September to 11 October, the 4th AD rested briefly before returning to combat 9 November with an attack in the vicinity of Viviers. The 4th AD cleared Bois de Serres, 12 November, advanced through Dieuze and crossed the Saar River, 21–22 November, to establish and expand bridgehead and took Singling and Bining, then Baerendorf[4] 24 November, before being relieved 8 December.

The 4th Armored Division received the following unit awards from France: Croix de Guerre with Palm (27–29 July 1944), Croix de Guerre with Palm (12–29 September 1944), and French Fourragere in the colors of the Croix de guerre.

Two days after the Germans launched their Ardennes Offensive, the 4th AD entered the fight (18 December 1944), racing northwest into Belgium, covering 150 miles in 19 hours.[3] The 4th AD, spearheading Patton's Third Army, attacked the Germans at Bastogne and, on 26 December, was the first unit (Company C, 37th Armored Battalion[5]) to breakthrough at Bastogne and relieve the besieged 101st Airborne Division. Six weeks later the 4th AD jumped off from Luxembourg City in an eastward plunge that carried it across the Moselle River at Trier, south and east to Worms, and across the Rhine, 24–25 March 1945. Advancing all night, the 4th AD crossed the Main River the next day, south of Hanau, and continued to push on. Lauterbach fell 29 March, Creuzburg across the Werra on 1 April, Gotha on 4 April ... where the 4th AD liberated Ohrdruf concentration camp, and by 12 April the 4TH AD was across the Saale River. Pursuit of the enemy continued and by 6 May the division had crossed into Czechoslovakia, established a bridgehead across the Otava River at Strakonice, with forward elements at Pisek. The 4th AD was reassigned to the XII Corps on 30 April 1945.

The 4th AD's first commander Major General John Shirley Wood, (known as "P" Wood to his contemporaries, the "P" standing for "Professor") who took over the division officially on 18 June 1942, trained the 4th Armored Division for two years before he personally led it into combat in France, on 28 July 1944, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. On 1 August, General George Patton's U.S. Third Army became operational and the 4th AD became the spearhead of the Third Army. The British military armor theorist and historian, Captain Basil Henry Liddell Hart, once referred to General Wood as "the Rommel of the American armored forces." Like Rommel, Wood commanded from the front, and preferred staying on the offensive, using speed and envelopment tactics to confuse the enemy. General Wood often utilized a light Piper Cub liaison aircraft flown by his personal pilot, Major Charles "Bazooka Charlie" Carpenter, to keep up with his rapidly moving division, sometimes personally carrying corps orders from headquarters directly to his advancing armored columns.

On 3 December 1944, General Wood was relieved as division commander. The division was then led by Major General Hugh Gaffey through the Battle of the Bulge and until the end of the war. Major General Archibald R. Kennedy commanded the division after the war.

Among the most famous members of the 4th AD during World War II was Creighton Abrams, who commanded the 37th Tank Battalion. Abrams later rose to command all U.S. forces in Vietnam and served as U.S. Army Chief of Staff in the 1970s. The current U.S. M-1 tank is named after him.[8]


С июля 1944 по май 1945 в составе 1-й и 3-й армий дивизия воевала в Северо-Западной Европе.

Дивизия входила в состав:

дата корпус армия группа армий
в составе придан в составе придан
18.12.1943     1 ETOUSA  
22.01.1944 VIII   1    
01.02.1944 VIII 3 -    
09.03.1944 XX 3      
20.04.1944 XV 3      
15.07.1944 VIII 3 1    
01.08.1944 VIII 3 - 12  
13.08.1944 XII 3   12  
19.12.1944 III 3   12  
02.01.1945 VIII 3   12  
12.01.1945 XII 3   12  
04.04.1945 VIII 3   12  
09.04.1945 X 3   12  
17.04.1945 VIII 3   12  
22.04.1945 VIII 3   12  
30.04.1945 XII 3   12  

(-) Indicated relieved from assignment

III. Боевой и численный состав дивизии

Состав на 15 апреля 1941 г.:

  • Штаб [Headquarters]
  • Штабная рота [Headquarters Company, 4th Armored Division]
  • 4-я бронетанковая бригада [4th Armored Brigade HHC]:
  • 66-й полевой артиллерийский полк [66th Field Artillery Regiment (Armored)]
  • 84-й бронеразведывательный батальон [84th Reconnaissance Battalion (Armored)]
  • 22-й полевой артиллерийский дивизион [22nd Field Artillery Battalion (Armored)]
  • 51-й мотопехотный полк [51st Infantry (Armored) Regiment]
  • 24-й саперный батальон [24th Engineer Battalion (Armored)]
  • 46-й медико-санитарный батальон [46th Medical Battalion (Armored)]
  • 144-я рота связи [144th Signal Company (Armored)]
  • 20-й технический батальон [20th Ordnance Battalion (Armored)]
  • 18-й батальон снабжения [18th Quartermaster Battalion (Armored)]

10 сентября 1943 г. дивизия переформирована по штатам легкой бронетанковой дивизии:

  • Штаб и штабная рота [Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 4th Armored Division]
    • Боевое командование «А» [Combat Command A]
    • Боевое командование «Б» [Combat Command B]
    • Резервное командование [Reserve Command]
  • Основные подразделения [Organic Units]:
  • Дивизионная артиллерия [4th Armored Division Artillery]
    • 22-й полевой самоходно-артиллерийский дивизион [22nd Armored Field Artillery Battalion]
    • 66-й полевой самоходно-артиллерийский дивизион [66th Armored Field Artillery Battalion]
    • 94-й полевой самоходно-артиллерийский дивизион [94th Armored Field Artillery Battalion]
  • Дивизионные тылы [4th Armored Division Trains]
    • 4-й медицинский батальон [4th Armored Medical Battalion]
    • 126-й ремонтный батальон [126th Armored Ordnance Maintenance Battalion]
    • Взвод военной полиции [Military Police Platoon]

Численный состав дивизии в Кампании 1944/45 в Северо-Западной Европе

дата/тип танка M4 75mm M4 76mm M24 M26
00.08.1944 160 0    
00.09.1944 137 18    
00.10.1944 108 13    
00.11.1944 132 18    
00.12.1944 128 17    
00.01.1945 66 16    
00.02.1945 112 42    
00.03.1945 91 49    
00.04.1945 48 68 17  
00.05.1945 54 105 24  


IV. Боевой путь дивизии

Кампании, в которых участвовала дивизия: Нормандия (Normandy), Северная Франция (Northern France), Нидерланды (Rhineland), Эльзас - Арденны (Ardennes-Alsace), Центральная Европа (Central Europe).

На Северо-Западном ТВД в 1944-1945 гг.

  • в боях - 230 дней
  • потери личного состава: убито - 1 238 чел., ранено - 4 246 чел., пропало без вести - 503 чел., попал в плен - 1 чел.; небоевые потери - 4 508 чел.; потери от первоначальной численности - 98,4 %.
  • потери танков: средних - 216, легких - 52.
  • взято в плен солдат противника - 90 364 чел.

The division landed across Utah Beach France 13 Jul 44 and entered combat on 17 Jul 44, taking Coutances with CCB by 28 Jul 44. It took Avranches and captured the See River bridge 30 Jul 44 and then drove south to cut off the Brittany Peninsula as it reached Vannes 5 Aug 44. After investing Lorient on 7 Aug 44 it entered an evacuated Nantes 11 Aug 44 and took Orleans wfith CCA on 16 Aug 44. By 31 Aug 44 CCA had reached the Mouse River at Commercy and Pontsur-Meuse and established bridgeheads. Relieved there by the 80th Inf Div on 2 Sep 44, the division crossed the Moselle River near Lorey against heavy opposition writh CCB as CCA crossed into the Dieulouard Bridgehead stopping strong German counterattacks, all on 11-13 Sep 44. CCB forced the Marne-Rhine Canal at Crevic and Maixe against strong opposition 15 Sep 44 and CCR moved into Luneville the next day. In a series of tank duels, the division mopped up the Arracourt region 19-22 Sep 44. A German attack overran CCA hnes 25 Sep 44 and the division lost Vic-sur-Seille and Moncourt, then w^ithdrew the next day from Juvelize and Coincourt. The Battle for Hill 318 was fought 27-28 Sep 44 wdth heavy losses, but on 29 Sep 44 the division finally defeated the German attempt to take Arracourt. The division then went over to the defensive on line from Chambrey to Xanrey to Henamenil until 11 Oct 44 and on 12 Oct 44 was reheved by the 26th Inf Div for rehabihtation.

The division attacked 9 Nov 44 and reached Fonteny which was taken by CCB 11 Nov 44. After suffering heavy tank losses to a German counterattack which retook Rodalbe on 12 Nov 44, the division advanced against strong opposition to capture Dieuze and recapture Rodalbe by 19 Nov 44. CCB crossed the Saare at Romelfing 24 Nov 44 and cleared Baerendorf in house-to-house fighting, checked a German counterattack there the next day, and took Wolfskirchen despite flooded streams 27 Nov 44. The division then cleared its zone of responsibility, and next opened the attack on Saare-Union 1 Dec 44, which was taken the follovdng day by the 26th Inf Div. The division fought the Battle of Bining 5-6 Dec 44 and was relieved by the 1 2 Armd Div on 7 Dec 44.

In response to the German Ardennes Counteroffensive the division moved 150 miles as it assembled in the Arlon-Luxembourg area 20 Dec 44 while CCB reached the Bastogne area and contacted 10th Armd Div. On 22 Dec 44 the division took Martelange in the drive to relieve Bastogne, fought the Battle for Chaumont 23-25 Dec 44, and seized Bigonville in heavy combat 24 Dec 44. CCR pushed through Assenois to Bastogne on 26 Dec 44, and the next day vehicles from division entered the city and ended the siege. On 29 Dec 44 CCA opened the Arlon-Bastogne Highway. The division then held the corridor into Bastogne and gave fire-support to the 35th Inf Div, helping to clear Lutrebois 2 Jan 45. CCB attacked toward Noville 9 Jan 45 and the division attacked through 6th Armd Div toward Bourcy on 10 Jan 45. The division then maintained defensive positions, clearing Hosdorf on the Our River in a local attack 2 Feb 45.

CCB attacked through the 80th Inf Div at Geichlingen 22 Feb 45 and seized the bridge over the Pruem River at Sinspelt intact the next day. As CCA crossed the Pruem at Oberweiss 25 Feb 45, CCB established a bridgehead across the Nims at Rittersdorf. The following day it seized the high ground north of Bitburg but was unable to clear Erdorf on the Kyll River. On 27 Feb 45 CCA took Matzen and CCB captured Fliessen. The division assembled near Bitburg 3 Mar 45 and attacked through the 5th Inf Div on 5 Mar 45, reaching the Rhine River 8 Mar 45 where it regrouped and mopped up. The division then attacked out of the Moselle Bridgehead at Treis on 15 Mar 45 and reached the Nahe River at Bad Kreuznach on the following day. It moved to the Rhine River at Worms 20 Mar 45 and crossed 24 Mar 45. driving through the bridgehead there to reach the Main River near Hanau 25 Mar 45. It took an undefended Darmstadt the same day. On 28 Mar 45 the division attacked across the Main at Grossauhoim and crossed the Werra River at Creuzburg on 1 Apr 45. The division took Gotha 4 Apr 45 and reached the Saale River south of lena wfhich it crossed on 12 Apr 45 to estabhsh bridgeheads over the; Zwick Mulde at Wolkenburjj on 13 Apr 45. It withdrew to reserve on 19 Apr 45. and attacked again 6 May 45 through the Regen and Freyung Passes in Czechoslovakia. F'orward elements were at Pisek when hostilities ended 7 May 45.

V. Личные награды


Награда количество награжденных
Медаль Почета (Medal of Honor) 3
Крест «За выдающиеся заслуги» (Distinguished Service Cross) 45
Медаль Министерства обороны за выдающуюся службу (Distinguished Service Medal) 3
Орден «Легион почёта» (Legion of Merit) 27
Серебряная звезда (Silver Star) 757
Солдатская медаль (Soldiers Medal) 12
Бронзовая звезда (Bronze Star) 3 918
Воздушная Медаль (Air Medal) 95
Крест летных заслуг (Distinguished Flying Cross) 7


Рейтинг@Mail.ru Яндекс.Метрика
Литература и источники:
Steven J. Zaloga. Battle Orders 03. US Armored Divisions. Evropean theater of operations, 1944-1945. Osprey Publishing, 2004.
Бредли О. История солдата. - М.: Изографус «ЭКСМО-Пресс», 2002.